ⓘ Encyclopedia | Law - Law, Index of law articles, Outline of law, Johnson v. Johnson, State v. Rhodes, United States v. Games-Perez, United States v. Parson ..

Law

Law is commonly understood as a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate conduct, although its precise definition is a matter of longstanding debate. It has been variously described as a science and the art of justice. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics, history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. Legal systems vary between countries, with their differences analysed in comparative law. In civil law jurisdictions, a legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates the law. In common law systems, judges make binding case law through precedent, although on occasion case law may be overturned by a higher court or the legislature. Historically, religious law influenced secular matters, and is still used in some religious communities. Sharia law based on Islamic principles is used as the primary legal system in several countries, including Iran and Saudi Arabia. Laws scope can be divided into two domains. Public law concerns government and society, including constitutional law, administrative law, and criminal law. Private law deals with legal disputes between individuals and/or organisations in areas such as contracts, property, torts/delicts and commercial law. This distinction is stronger in civil law countries, particularly those with a separate system of administrative courts; by contrast, the public-private law divide is less pronounced in common law jurisdictions. Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, philosophy, economic analysis and sociology. Law also raises important and complex issues concerning equality, fairness, and justice.

Index of law articles

This collection of lists of law topics collects the names of topics related to law. Everything related to law, even quite remotely, should be included on the alphabetical list, and on the appropriate topic lists. All links on topical lists should also appear in the main alphabetical listing. The process of creating lists is ongoing – these lists are neither complete nor up-to-date – if you see an article that should be listed but is not, please update the lists accordingly. You may also want to include Wikiproject Law talk page banners on the relevant pages.

Outline of law

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to law: Law is the set of rules and principles by which a society is governed, through enforcement by governmental authorities. Law is also the field which concerns the creation and administration of laws, and includes any and all legal systems.

Johnson v. Johnson

Johnson v. Johnson was a court case with a 17-week trial in New York Surrogates Court, which John Seward Johnson Is six children sued to overturn a will in which their father had given his 0 million estate to his second wife, Basia Johnson, a Polish refugee who had once worked as a chambermaid in their household, leaving nothing to them or to his oceanographic foundation, Harbor Branch. The case involved 210 lawyers, with legal fees running to million, and ultimately the case was settled with million of the estate going to the Johnson children and paying their legal fees. Accounts of the case were written by David Margolick and Barbara Goldsmith. According to Robert Kagan, Johnsons children employed "smart, aggressive" lawyers from a big New York law firm, Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy, and conducted marathon pretrial (and conducted pretrial marathon) depositions of Basia, the Johnson children, and Seward Johnsons lawyer. The defendant argued that in a sequence of earlier wills, Johnson had consistently left nothing to his children, who were already recipients of trust funds, and made successively more generous bequests to Basia.

State v. Rhodes

State v. A. B. Rhodes, 61 N.C. 453, was a case in which the Supreme Court of North Carolina found that even though a husband does not have the legal right to whip his wife, the courts "should not interfere to punish him for moderate correction of her", even if there was no provocation for it. The case established that in "determining whether the husband has been guilty of an indictable assault and battery upon his wife, the criterion is the effect produced, and not the manner of producing it or the instrument used." William Henry Malones Criminal Briefs, published in 1886, describes Justice Reades opinion in this case to be "the most complete and satisfactory to be found in the books." Siegel notes that the decision "tacitly incorporates their relative privileges and disabilities under the marital status rules of the common law", "discusses questions of authority and submission in the affect-based discourses of companionate marriage", and asserts "that an affectionate wife has the reserves of altruism to forgive her husbands outbursts of violence".

United States v. Games-Perez

On 24 July 2009, a judge had told Games-Perez, when he was pleading guilty to armed robbery, "Here is what will happen today, if I accept your plea today, hopefully you will leave this courtroom not convicted of a felony and instead granted the privilege of a deferred judgment, which means you will be supervised by the Department of Probation for a period of two years." Less than one year later, on 9 May 2010, Games-Perez was caught by members of the Denver police force in possession of a loaded Hi-Point.380 caliber pistol with an obliterated serial number.

United States v. Parson

United States v. Parson, 599 F.Supp. 2d 592, was a case in which the government used a ruse to trick a sixty-five year old man who had cataracts, lived alone on a low fixed‐income, and took medication for depression, to consent to a search of his computer. They told him that he might be the victim of identity theft, and wanted to look at his computer. The court overturned the search based on the extent to which the deceit directly served to overcome the citizens reticence or resistance to the search.

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